networking information

From LifeWire Website

Computer Network Classification and Area Networks  

Computer networks can be categorized in several different ways. One  approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it  spans. Local area networks (LANs), for example, typically span a single home, school, or small office building, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The internet is the world's largest public WAN.

Network Design  

Computer networks also differ in their design approach. The two basic forms of network design are called client-server and peer-to-peer.  Client-server networks feature centralized server computers that store  email, web pages, files, and applications accessed by client computers  and other client devices. On a peer-to-peer network, conversely, all  devices tend to support the same functions. Client-server networks are  common in business and peer-to-peer networks are common in homes.

A network topology defines  the network layout or structure from the point of view of data flow. In  bus networks, for example, all computers share and communicate across  one common conduit, whereas in a star network, data flows through one  centralized device. Common types of network topologies include bus,  star, ring, and mesh.


Network Protocols  

Communication languages used by computer devices are called network protocols.  Another way to classify computer networks is by the set of protocols  they support. Networks often implement multiple protocols and each  network supports specific applications. Popular protocols include  TCP/IP — the one commonly found on the internet and in home networks.

Computer Network Hardware and Software  

Special purpose communication devices including network routers,  access points, and network cables physically glue a network together.  Network operating systems and other software applications generate  network traffic and enable users to do useful things.


What Is a Router and How Does it Work? 


Home Computer Networking  

While other types of networks are built and maintained by engineers, home networks belong to homeowners who often have little or no technical background.  Various manufacturers produce broadband router hardware designed to  simplify home network setup. A home router enables devices in different  rooms to efficiently share a broadband internet connection, helps  household members share files and printers within the network, and  improves overall network security.


Home networks have increased in capability with each generation of  new technology. Years ago, people commonly set up a home network to  connect a few PCs, share documents, and perhaps share a printer. Now  it's common for households to network game consoles, digital video  recorders, and smartphones for streaming sound and video. Home  automation systems have also existed for many years, but these have  grown in popularity recently with practical systems that control lights,  digital thermostats, and appliances.

Business Computer Networks  

Small and home office (SOHO) environments use technology that is  similar to home networks. Businesses often have additional  communication, data storage, and security requirements that require  expanding networks in different ways, particularly as the business gets  larger.


Whereas a home network generally functions as one LAN, a business  network tends to contain multiple LANs. Companies with buildings in  multiple locations utilize wide-area networking to connect these branch  offices together. Though also available and used by some households, voice over IP communication, network storage, and backup technologies are prevalent  in businesses. Larger companies also maintain internal web sites, called  intranets, to help with employee business communication.


Networking and the Internet  

The popularity of computer networks sharply increased with the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s. Public web sites, peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing  systems, and various other services run on internet servers across the  world.

Wired vs. Wireless Computer Networking  

Many of the same protocols such as TCP/IP work in both wired and  wireless networks. Networks with Ethernet cables predominated in  businesses, schools, and homes for several decades. Wi-Fi has emerged as the preferred option for building new computer networks,  in part to support smartphones and the other wireless gadgets that have  triggered the rise of mobile networking. 

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common network links

Link Programming


Computer network programming involves writing computer programs that enable processes to communicate with each other across a computer network

Link Electronics


 A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components. Network analysis is the process of finding the voltages across, and the currents through, all network components. ... However, for the most part, the techniques assume linear components.



 CERN Selects Juniper Networks to Increase Network Capacity for Handling Unprecedented Volumes of Data for its Scientific Projects.

Link Chat


 Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network.

Link Children


 Children reported on friendship qualities, peer acceptance, loneliness, and classroom social networks. Despite involvement in networks, children with autism experienced lower centrality, acceptance, companionship, and reciprocity; yet they did not report greater loneliness.

Link Cybernetics


 Thanks to the movie industry, machines based on cybernetics, robotics and biology have been quite popular. Such a machine is commonly known as a cyborg, which is an organism that has both artificial and natural systems.

Link Frequencies


 Cellular frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the ultra high frequency band that have been assigned for cellular-compatible mobile devices, such as mobile phones, to connect to cellular networks. Most mobile networks worldwide use portions of the radio frequency .

Link Light


 Li-Fi (short for light fidelity) is wireless communication technology which utilizes light to transmit ... uses light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a medium to deliver network, mobile, high-speed communication in a similar manner to Wi-Fi.

Link Mind


 An integrative overview of network approaches to neuroscience explores the origins of brain complexity and the link between brain structure and function.