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Negative Mass Lasers

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  PARTICLE PHYSICS: 'MIND-BENDING' NEGATIVE MASS DEVICE REVEALS NEW WAY TO CREATE LASERS BY ON 1/12/18 AT 7:30 AM EST


hysicists have designed the first device to create particles with charged negative mass. The breakthrough could lead to an entirely new way to generate laser light using only a tiny amount of energy.

The success hinged on making a device that allowed for the creation of strange particles called polaritons. For the device, researchers at the University of Rochester positioned two mirrors to form an "optical microcavity." Inside that space, light is held at different colors of the spectrum depending on how the mirrors are arranged, according to a press release from the University of Rochester.

The researchers outfitted the microcavity with a semiconductor made from two chemical elements, one that is metallic and one that is not. This particular semiconductor was about the width of an atom, which is more than a million times smaller than a human hair. The semiconductor was strategically placed to interact with the trapped light. This interaction generated tiny exciton particles from the semiconductor that then combined with photons from the light. This mixing formed new, hybrid particles called polaritons, some of which have negative mass. A paper describing the research was published in the scientific journal Nature Physics.


Negative mass is hard to grasp mentally—and also physically. It's matter that acts the exact opposite of however you'd assume it would. Anything an object would be expected to do when some kind of force is applied, an object with negative mass does the inverse.

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"That's a kind of mind-bending thing to think about," co-author Nick Vamivakas said in the press release, "because if you try to push or pull it, it will go in the opposite direction from what your intuition would tell you." Such matter is part of the theory behind how wormholes might work.

But these properties don't negate the more familiar laws of physics. "People have been asking me if 'negative mass' means instead of falling because of gravity the device would float. That's not what this means," Vamivakas, an associate professor of quantum optics and quantum physics at Rochester's Institute of Optics, told Newsweek. "Negative mass is a property of the particles withinthe material. The material still has mass; if I take my hand off it, it'll fall to the floor."

The physicists believe polaritons could lead to cheap, efficient methods for conducting electricity. Because the bizarre particles they've created have charges associated with them, they can be manipulated to push and pull an electric field.


Vamivakas said he and his colleagues are hoping to use the device to create lower-power lasers, meaning lasers that don't need to expend a great deal of energy to generate the same amount of light. Various reports of negative mass have been made in recent years, some of which were subsequently contested. What sets this research apart is that it resulted in polaritons with electrical charges, said Vamivakas, whose lab the work was conducted in. All other demonstrations of negative mass he's aware of used uncharged particles, which wouldn't facilitate such experiments with lasers.

"We want to push the envelope of how efficient things can be," Vamivakas said. "The particles are somewhat light-like, so they move around faster in a material than normal electrons. We're trying to come up with ways to make switches, to use negative-mass particles to turn things on and off in a clever way."


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Scientists Project Holograms Into The Brain To Create Experiences



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 Neuron, Cell of the nervous system allowing information to be carried in the form of electrical and chemical signals. (Photo by: QAI Publishing/UIG via Getty Images)    

Neuron, Cell of the  nervous system allowing information to be carried in the form of  electrical and chemical signals. (Photo by: QAI Publishing/UIG via Getty  Images)

One day  soon you may be filling your lungs with crisp ocean air, your arms  bathed in warm light as the sun sets over softly lapping waters and you  may wonder, is this real? Or are scientists projecting holograms into my  brain to create a vivid sensory experience that isn’t actually  happening? A group of researchers at University of California, Berkeley  are in the early stages of testing their ability to  create, edit and scrub sensory experiences from your brain, both real-time and stored experiences: memories. 


Using light to make us see what isn’t there.


Different sensory experiences show up in brain imaging as patterns of neurons firing in sequence. Neuroscientists are trying to reverse-engineer experiences by stimulating the neurons to excite the same neural patterns. At present, the steps to accomplish this are a little invasive. Scientists genetically modify neurons with photosensitive proteins so they can gingerly manipulate neurons using light. The process is known as optogenetics. Also, a metal head plate gets surgically implanted over the targeted area.

Then there’s the challenge of finding a  way to bull's-eye each individual, microscopic cell body without  exciting neighboring neurons. Enter computer generated holography (CGH) to create three-dimensional  floating light shapes. The diffracted light-forms are projected into the  brain, sailing through a gossamer layer of brain tissue at the surface  of the cortex and triggering just the right pattern and rhythm of neural  activity to generate specific sensations and perceptions.  The holograms can stimulate, edit and suppress patterns of neurons that correlate with the brain activity of actual experiences.

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"The major advance is the  ability to control neurons precisely in space and time," says Nicolas  Pégard, one of the first authors of a paper in Nature Neuroscience today.  "In other words, to shoot the very specific sets of neurons you want to  activate and do it at the characteristic scale and the speed at which  they normally work."

Development of the device required imagination and a confluence of emergent technologies. "This  is the culmination of technologies that researchers have been working  on for a while, but have been impossible to put together," says another  of the first authors, Alan Mardinly. "We solved numerous technical problems at the same time to  bring it all together and finally realize the potential of this  technology."


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The team published a paper last year in the journal Nature Communications, dubbing their holographic brain modulator The 3D-SHOT: a three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing.


What The 3D Shot could do for us.


The therapeutic potential for  the device is exciting. From helping to restore sight to the  blind, hearing to the deaf, to reinstating sensation in patients with  peripheral nerve damage and helping amputees control prosthetic limbs.

"This has great potential for neural  prostheses, since it has the precision needed for the brain to interpret  the pattern of activation,” says Mardinly. “If you can read and write  the language of the brain, you can speak to it in its own language and  it can interpret the message much better." Mardinly is already thinking  beyond therapeutic uses, towards augmenting human experience: "This is  one of the first steps in a long road to develop a technology that could  be a virtual brain implant with additional senses or enhanced senses."


Early stages.


We’re still a ways off before you can  plan your next staycation at a 3D Shot themed resort and spa. As of now,  the researchers are testing a prototype in the visual, touch and motor areas of mice brains.

The mice are showing similar patterns of neural response correlating to sensory stimuli. The next step is training the mice so scientists can observe behavior changes that correspond to the stimulation. Studying  behavioral cues is the best measure of success because you can’t ask a  mouse if it’s experiencing the ripe, mushroomy taste of Limburger cheese  as you flash holograms into its cortex.

The researchers plan to scale-up the  device’s capacity to interpret and create from a broader terrain of  brain matter while scaling-down the device to make it portable enough to  slip inside a backpack.

They’re also working towards capturing  neural patterns inside the brain with the goal of reproducing sensory  experience and playing it back through holography.

  

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Old Musicians Never Die. They Just Become Holograms.

 Companies are making plans to put droves of departed idols on tour — reanimating a live-music industry whose biggest earners will soon be dying off.


  In preparation for his first American tour in a decade, Ronnie James Dio spent months sequestered in a modest office suite in Marina del Rey, in Los Angeles. The office was on the second floor of a strip mall, above a vape shop and a massage parlor. I visited at the end of May, only a couple of days before the opening date of the tour, and among Dio’s team, there was a tangible air of anticipation. Dio never became a household name, but he is considered one of the great heavy-metal vocalists of all time, up there with Ozzy Osbourne (whom he replaced in Black Sabbath) and metal-adjacent rockers like Axl Rose and Robert Plant. Beginning in the 1970s, Dio took a lead role in codifying a number of his genre’s most ludicrous, yet utterly foundational, conventions. He sang of wolves and demons, toured with an animatronic dragon and supposedly introduced the splay-fingered “devil horns” headbanger’s salute, which he claimed his Italian grandmother used to flash as an old-world method of warding off the malocchio and other forms of bad luck.

Opinion among the Dio faithful, nonetheless, was divided on the subject of his “Dio Returns” comeback tour, largely because Dio has been dead for almost 10 years. The Marina del Rey office suite was the site of a visual-effects company creating a Dio hologram. The hologram would tour with a living backing group consisting, in large part, of former Dio bandmates.

If you missed the tour, you might want to take a moment here and call up one of the fan-shot videos posted on YouTube — say, “Rainbow in the Dark,” Dio’s 1983 hit, filmed at the Center Stage Theater in Atlanta on June 3, during which the Dio hologram prowls a central portion of the stage, bobbing, weaving, twirling his microphone cord to the monster riffs and occasionally using his free hand to air-conduct his most operatic vocal flourishes. (“His” — would “its” be more apt? Neither word feels quite right.) At one point, the bassist, Bjorn Englen, takes several very deliberate steps to his left, allowing the hologram to dance in front of him and adding to the illusion of a three-dimensional conjuring.

The hologram itself has an uneasy pallor, a brighter shade than the humans onstage but at the same time insubstantial, like a ghost struggling to fully materialize. One crucial decision that had faced the animators was choosing the right age for their creation. Dio in his MTV-era prime tempted them, of course, but then wouldn’t it be strange to watch him perform alongside band members who were roughed up by the ensuing years like the rest of us? Then again, Dio’s actual age in 2019, were he alive, would be 77, which is not ideal for a heavy-metal frontman. The creative team ultimately settled on a spry, middle-aged Dio, outfitting him in black leather pants, a studded leather wristband and a bell-sleeved white tunic embossed with a silver cross.

A start-up called Eyellusion produced “Dio Returns.” It’s one of a handful of companies looking to mold and ultimately monetize a new, hybrid category of entertainment — part concert, part technology-driven spectacle — centered, thus far, on the holographic afterlives of deceased musical stars. Eyellusion also toured a hologram of Frank Zappa in the spring, in a show overseen by Zappa’s son Ahmet. The tour kicked off in April at the Capitol Theater in Port Chester, N.Y., about an hour north of Manhattan in Westchester County. A few hours before the show, I talked to the owner of the venue, the 47-year-old concert promoter Peter Shapiro. In 2015, he was a producer of the Grateful Dead’s 50th-anniversary “Fare Thee Well” concerts. The five shows grossed more than $50 million, becoming, according to Billboard, “one of the most successful events in live-music history.” We met at the Capitol Theater bar, which is called Garcia’s and serves as a sort of secular reliquary devoted to the Dead’s frontman, Jerry Garcia. The décor included one of Garcia’s banjos and a Chuck Close-style portrait of Garcia made entirely of Lego bricks. Shapiro, who attended a preview of the Zappa concert, said, “What I just saw felt closer to seeing Zappa than seeing a cover band do it,” adding that, based on ticket sales alone, he would definitely book another hologram show. The theater, which holds 1,800 people, was close to sold out for opening night.

“But here’s the headline,” Shapiro went on. “Look at who’s gone, just in the last couple of years: Bowie, Prince, Petty. Now look who’s still going but who’s not going to be here in 10 years, probably, at least not touring: the Stones, the Who, the Eagles, Aerosmith, Billy Joel, Elton John, McCartney, Springsteen. That is the base not just of classic rock but of the live-music touring business. Yes, there’s Taylor Swift, there’s Ariana Grande. But the base is these guys.”

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Buddy Holly revived as a hologram for a show in Los Angeles.

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Old Musicians Never Die. They Just Become Holograms.

Companies are making plans to put droves of departed idols on tour — reanimating a live-music industry whose biggest earners will soon be dying off.

Buddy Holly revived as a hologram for a show in Los Angeles.Credit...Jeff Minton for The New York Times

By Mark Binelli

  • Jan. 7, 2020
    • 280

In preparation for his first American tour in a decade, Ronnie James Dio spent months sequestered in a modest office suite in Marina del Rey, in Los Angeles. The office was on the second floor of a strip mall, above a vape shop and a massage parlor. I visited at the end of May, only a couple of days before the opening date of the tour, and among Dio’s team, there was a tangible air of anticipation. Dio never became a household name, but he is considered one of the great heavy-metal vocalists of all time, up there with Ozzy Osbourne (whom he replaced in Black Sabbath) and metal-adjacent rockers like Axl Rose and Robert Plant. Beginning in the 1970s, Dio took a lead role in codifying a number of his genre’s most ludicrous, yet utterly foundational, conventions. He sang of wolves and demons, toured with an animatronic dragon and supposedly introduced the splay-fingered “devil horns” headbanger’s salute, which he claimed his Italian grandmother used to flash as an old-world method of warding off the malocchio and other forms of bad luck.

Opinion among the Dio faithful, nonetheless, was divided on the subject of his “Dio Returns” comeback tour, largely because Dio has been dead for almost 10 years. The Marina del Rey office suite was the site of a visual-effects company creating a Dio hologram. The hologram would tour with a living backing group consisting, in large part, of former Dio bandmates.

If you missed the tour, you might want to take a moment here and call up one of the fan-shot videos posted on YouTube — say, “Rainbow in the Dark,” Dio’s 1983 hit, filmed at the Center Stage Theater in Atlanta on June 3, during which the Dio hologram prowls a central portion of the stage, bobbing, weaving, twirling his microphone cord to the monster riffs and occasionally using his free hand to air-conduct his most operatic vocal flourishes. (“His” — would “its” be more apt? Neither word feels quite right.) At one point, the bassist, Bjorn Englen, takes several very deliberate steps to his left, allowing the hologram to dance in front of him and adding to the illusion of a three-dimensional conjuring.

The hologram itself has an uneasy pallor, a brighter shade than the humans onstage but at the same time insubstantial, like a ghost struggling to fully materialize. One crucial decision that had faced the animators was choosing the right age for their creation. Dio in his MTV-era prime tempted them, of course, but then wouldn’t it be strange to watch him perform alongside band members who were roughed up by the ensuing years like the rest of us? Then again, Dio’s actual age in 2019, were he alive, would be 77, which is not ideal for a heavy-metal frontman. The creative team ultimately settled on a spry, middle-aged Dio, outfitting him in black leather pants, a studded leather wristband and a bell-sleeved white tunic embossed with a silver cross.

A start-up called Eyellusion produced “Dio Returns.” It’s one of a handful of companies looking to mold and ultimately monetize a new, hybrid category of entertainment — part concert, part technology-driven spectacle — centered, thus far, on the holographic afterlives of deceased musical stars. Eyellusion also toured a hologram of Frank Zappa in the spring, in a show overseen by Zappa’s son Ahmet. The tour kicked off in April at the Capitol Theater in Port Chester, N.Y., about an hour north of Manhattan in Westchester County. A few hours before the show, I talked to the owner of the venue, the 47-year-old concert promoter Peter Shapiro. In 2015, he was a producer of the Grateful Dead’s 50th-anniversary “Fare Thee Well” concerts. The five shows grossed more than $50 million, becoming, according to Billboard, “one of the most successful events in live-music history.” We met at the Capitol Theater bar, which is called Garcia’s and serves as a sort of secular reliquary devoted to the Dead’s frontman, Jerry Garcia. The décor included one of Garcia’s banjos and a Chuck Close-style portrait of Garcia made entirely of Lego bricks. Shapiro, who attended a preview of the Zappa concert, said, “What I just saw felt closer to seeing Zappa than seeing a cover band do it,” adding that, based on ticket sales alone, he would definitely book another hologram show. The theater, which holds 1,800 people, was close to sold out for opening night.

“But here’s the headline,” Shapiro went on. “Look at who’s gone, just in the last couple of years: Bowie, Prince, Petty. Now look who’s still going but who’s not going to be here in 10 years, probably, at least not touring: the Stones, the Who, the Eagles, Aerosmith, Billy Joel, Elton John, McCartney, Springsteen. That is the base not just of classic rock but of the live-music touring business. Yes, there’s Taylor Swift, there’s Ariana Grande. But the base is these guys.”

 

Click picture to read the whole artical from New York Times Magazine

Click this picture to read the whole artical fromNew York Times.

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holographic sensors

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Holographic sensor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  (Redirected from Holographic Sensor)Jump to navigationJump to search

A holographic sensor is a device that comprises a hologram embedded in a smart material that detects certain molecules or metabolites.[1] This detection is usually a chemical interaction that is transduced as a change in one of the properties of the holographic reflection (as in the Bragg reflector), either refractive index or spacing between the holographic fringes.[2] The specificity of the sensor can be controlled by adding molecules in the polymer film that selectively interacts with the molecules of interest.

A holographic sensor aims to integrate the sensor component, the transducer and the display in one device for fast reading of molecular concentrations based in colorful reflections or wavelengths.[3]

Certain molecules that mimic biomolecule active sites or binding sites can be incorporated into the polymer that forms the holographic film in order to make the holographic sensors selective and/or sensitive to certain medical important molecules like glucose, etc.

The holographic sensors can be read from a fair distance[quantify] because the transducer element is light that has been refracted and reflected by the holographic grating embedded in the sensor. Therefore, they can be used in industrial applications where non-contact with the sensor is required. Other applications for holographic sensors are anti-counterfeiting [4]

Metabolites[edit]

Some of the metabolites detected by a holographic sensor are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ AK Yetisen; I Naydenova; F da Cruz Vasconcellos; J Blyth; CR Lowe (2014). "Holographic Sensors: Three-Dimensional Analyte-Sensitive Nanostructures and their Applications". Chemical Reviews. 114 (20): 10654–96. doi:10.1021/cr500116a. PMID 25211200.
  2. ^ AK Yetisen; Y Montelongo; FC Vasconcellos; JL Martinez-Hurtado; S Neupane; H Butt; MM Qasim; J Blyth; K Burling; JB Carmody; M Evans; TD Wilkinson; LT Kubota; MJ Monteiro; CR Lowe (2014). "Reusable, Robust, and Accurate Laser-Generated Photonic Nanosensor". Nano Letters. 14 (6): 3587–3593. Bibcode:2014NanoL..14.3587Y. doi:10.1021/nl5012504. PMID 24844116.
  3. ^ AK Yetisen; H Butt; F da Cruz Vasconcellos; Y Montelongo; CAB Davidson; J Blyth; JB Carmody; S Vignolini; U Steiner; JJ Baumberg; TD Wilkinson; CR Lowe (2014). "Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors". Advanced Optical Materials. 2 (3): 250–254. doi:10.1002/adom.201300375.
  4. ^ FC Vasconcellos; AK Yetisen; Y Montelongo; H Butt; A Grigore; CAB Davidson; J Blyth; MJ Monteiro; TD Wilkinson; CR Lowe (2014). "Printable Surface Holograms via Laser Ablation" (PDF). ACS Photonics. 1 (6): 489–495. doi:10.1021/ph400149m.
  5. ^ Hurtado, J. L. Martinez; Lowe, C. R. (2014). "Ammonia-Sensitive Photonic Structures Fabricated in Nafion Membranes by Laser Ablation". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 6 (11): 8903–8908. doi:10.1021/am5016588. ISSN 1944-8244. PMID 24803236.
  6. ^ CP Tsangarides; AK Yetisen; FC Vasconcellos; Y Montelongo; MM Qasim; CR Lowe; TD Wilkinson; H Butt (2014). "Computational modelling and characterisation of nanoparticle-based tuneable photonic crystal sensors" (PDF). RSC Advances. 4 (21): 10454–10461. doi:10.1039/C3RA47984F.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Martínez-Hurtado, J. L.; Davidson, C. A. B.; Blyth, J.; Lowe, C. R. (2010). "Holographic Detection of Hydrocarbon Gases and Other Volatile Organic Compounds". Langmuir. 26 (19): 15694–15699. doi:10.1021/la102693m. ISSN 0743-7463. PMID 20836549.
  8. ^ Selective Holographic Glucose Sensor: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1426342&userType=inst
  9. ^ Blyth, Jeff; Millington, Roger B.; Mayes, Andrew G.; Frears, Emma R.; Lowe, Christopher R. (1996). "Holographic Sensor for Water in Solvents". Analytical Chemistry. 68 (7): 1089–1094. doi:10.1021/ac9509115. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 21619138.
  10. ^ Sartain, Felicity K.; Yang, Xiaoping; Lowe, Christopher R. (2006). "Holographic Lactate Sensor". Analytical Chemistry. 78 (16): 5664–5670. doi:10.1021/ac060416g. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 16906709.
  11. ^ Marshall, Alexander J.; Young, Duncan S.; Blyth, Jeff; Kabilan, Satyamoorthy; Lowe, Christopher R. (2004). "Metabolite-Sensitive Holographic Biosensors". Analytical Chemistry. 76 (5): 1518–1523. doi:10.1021/ac030357w. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 14987112.
  12. ^ Millington, Roger B.; Mayes, Andrew G.; Blyth, Jeff.; Lowe, Christopher R. (1995). "A Holographic Sensor for Proteases". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (23): 4229–4233. doi:10.1021/ac00119a004. ISSN 0003-2700.
  13. ^ AK Yetisen; M Qasim; S Nosheen; TD Wilkinson; CR Lowe (2014). "Pulsed laser writing of holographic nanosensors". Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 2 (18): 3569. doi:10.1039/C3TC32507E.   

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