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Indus Valley Civilization

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 Indus valley most advanced of old  civilizations. I daresay better than Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece,  Chinese, Turks, Japan, Tibet, Mongols, and even the bloody Romans. I  think it is even superior to 17th century and 18th century England  (Indus Valley had toilets). It should be a civilization to be remembered  for all time and history. 

The Indus Valley was extremely advanced with  their water and sewer systems. They learned to trap the water every  year during the flood and use it all year for drinking water and to  water crops. They mysteriously disappeared and still no one knows what  happened to them. Pretty cool.

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Ancient Armenia

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 Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains  of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, later  Hayastan (Armenian: հայաստան), translated as the land of Haik, and  consisting of the name of the ancient Mesopotamian god Haya (ha-ià) and the Persian suffix '-stan' ("land").

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Akkadian Empire

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 The first Empire of Mesopotamia and was ruled by Sargon of Akkad. He himself is very powerful ruler. 

The First empire to ever exist (so far) and  created the first proper administration and organized force in the  world, and it doesn't surprise us that it started in the mid-east.

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Ancient Mesopatamia

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 Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers') was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by  the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau,  corresponding to today's Iraq, mostly, but also parts of modern-day  Iran, Syria and Turkey.

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Vikings

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 Who Were the Vikings?     

Contrary to some  popular conceptions of the Vikings, they were not a “race” linked by  ties of common ancestry or patriotism, and could not be defined by any  particular sense of “Viking-ness.” Most of the Vikings whose activities  are best known come from the areas now known as Denmark, Norway and  Sweden, though there are mentions in historical records of Finnish,  Estonian and Saami Vikings as well. Their common ground–and what made  them different from the European peoples they confronted–was that they  came from a foreign land, they were not “civilized” in the local  understanding of the word and–most importantly–they were not Christian.

Did  you know? The name Viking came from the Scandinavians themselves, from  the Old Norse word "vik" (bay or creek) which formed the root of  "vikingr" (pirate).

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The  exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are  uncertain; some have suggested it was due to overpopulation of their  homeland, but the earliest Vikings were looking for riches, not land. In  the eighth century A.D., Europe was growing richer, fueling the growth  of trading centers such as Dorestad and Quentovic on the Continent and  Hamwic (now Southampton), London, Ipswich and York in England.  Scandinavian furs were highly prized in the new trading markets; from  their trade with the Europeans, Scandinavians learned about new sailing  technology as well as about the growing wealth and accompanying inner  conflicts between European kingdoms. The Viking predecessors–pirates who  preyed on merchant ships in the Baltic Sea–would use this knowledge to  expand their fortune-seeking activities into the North Sea and beyond.

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Ancient Syria

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 The history of Syria covers events which occurred on the territory of the present Syrian Arab Republic and events which occurred in Syria (region). The present Syrian Arab Republic spans territory which was first unified in the 10th century BCE under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the capital of which was the city of Ashur,  from which the name "Syria" most likely derives. This territory was  then conquered by various rulers, and settled in by different peoples.  Syria is considered to have emerged as an independent country for the  first time on 24 October 1945, upon the signing of the United Nations Charter by the Syrian government, effectively ending France’s mandate by the League of Nations to "render administrative advice and assistance to the population" of  Syria, which came in effect on April 1946. On 21 February 1958, however,  Syria merged with Egypt to create the United Arab Republic after plebiscitary ratification of the merger by both countries’  nations, but seceded from it in 1961, thereby recovering its full  independence. Since 1963, the Syrian Arab Republic has been ruled by the Ba’ath Party, run by the Assad family exclusively since 1970. Currently Syria is fractured between rival forces on the course of the Syrian Civil War.

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Songhai Empire

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 The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was a pre-colonial West African trading state centered on the middle reaches of the Niger River in what is now central Mali. The empire eventually extended west to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, and east into present-day Nigeria and Burkina Faso.

Considered one of the greatest African empires, from the early  fifteenth to the late sixteenth century, Songhai was also one of the  largest empires in West Africa, stretching all the way to present-day Cameroon. With several thousand cultures under its control, Songhai was clearly the largest empire in African history.

Conquest, centralization, and standardization in the empire were the most ambitious and far-reaching in sub-Saharan history until the colonization of the continent by Europeans.

Established by the Songhai tribe circa 800 C.E., the kingdom lasted nearly 800 years, until being overtaken by Morocco.

Origins of the Songhai Empire

Prior to the rise of the Songhai Empire, the region around the Big Bend of the Niger River had been dominated by the Mali Empire, centered on Timbuktu.

Mali grew famous due to their immense riches obtained through trade with the Arab world, and the legendary hajj of Mansa Musa. By the early fifteenth century, the Mali dominance of  the region began to decline as internal disputes over succession  weakened the political authority of the crown. Many subjects broke away,  including the Songhai, who made the prominent city of Gao their new  capital.

Gao

The  history of the ancient city of Gao has been reconstructed from oral  history and tombstone writing at the burial site of kings. While the two  sources of historical record do not always agree in details, together  they form an image of Gao beginning in the seventh century C.E. While it would not be considered the center of the Songhai Empire until early in the eleventh century C.E. , the first records of Gao describe a bustling trade center that had  established political autonomy. Capitalizing on the conditions already  existing in Gao, the Songhai chose it as their capital in 1010 C.E., a move which set Gao along the road of future development and growth.

Dia Kossoi

The first Dia, or king, of the Songhai Empire to enter the historical  record is Dia Kossoi, who was responsible for converting the empire to Islam in 1010 C.E., concurrent with the shift to Gao as capital. Many scholars argue that his conversion was a pragmatic measure to benefit relations with berber traders, who controlled the caravans and played a major role in the economy of the empire. 

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Ancient Israel

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 The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant. The Kingdom of Israel emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE and later became a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE. Following the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, some Judean exiles returned to Jerusalem, inaugurating the  formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite identity  in the province of Yehud Medinata.  

During the Hellenistic classic period, Yehud was absorbed into the subsequent Hellenistic kingdoms that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great, but in the 2nd century BCE the Judaeans revolted against the Seleucid Empire and created the Hasmonean kingdom. This, the last nominally independent kingdom of Israel, gradually lost its independence from 63 BCE with its conquest by Pompey of Rome, becoming a Roman and later Parthian client kingdom. Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. The name Judea (Iudaea) ceased to be used by Greco-Romans after the Bar Kochba revolt of 135 CE. 

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Ancient Spain (Andalusia)

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 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   Jump to navigation Jump to search This  article is about the autonomous community of modern Spain. For the  medieval Islamic state which covered most of Iberia, see Al-Andalus. For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). Andalusia
Andalucía (Spanish)Autonomous community Flag of Andalucía
FlagEmblem of Andalucía
Coat of armsMotto(s): Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad[1]
("Andalusia by itself, for Spain and humanity")Anthem: La bandera blanca y verdeMap of AndalusiaLocation of Andalusia within Spain.Coordinates: 37°23′N 5°59′WCoordinates: 37°23′N 5°59′WCountrySpainCapitalSevilleGovernment • BodyCouncil of Andalusia • PresidentJuan Manuel Moreno (PP-A)Area (17.2% of Spain) • Total87,268 km2 (33,694 sq mi)Area rank2ndPopulation (2016) • Total8,388,107 • Rank1st • Density96/km2 (250/sq mi) • Percent17.84% of SpainDemonymsAndalusian
andaluz, -za[2]ISO 3166 codeES-ANOfficial languagesSpanishStatute of Autonomy30 December 1981
first revision 2002
second revision 2007[3]LegislatureParliament- Congress61 Deputies of 350- Senate41 Senators of 265HDI (2017)0.860[4]
very high · 15thWebsitewww.juntadeandalucia.es 

Andalusia (UK: /ˌændəˈluːsiə, -ziə/, US: /-ʒ(i)ə, -ʃ(i)ə/;[5][6][7] Spanish: Andalucía [andaluˈθi.a]) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.  It is the most populous, and the second largest autonomous community in  the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially  recognised as a "historical nationality".[8] The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville. Its capital is the city of Seville (Spanish: Sevilla). 

Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in southwestern Europe, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha; west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea; east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean; and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. The small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. 

The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir.[9] 

The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus (الأندلس).[10] The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Latin and Arabic.[11][12] The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals;  however, a number of proposals since the 1980s have challenged this  contention. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts,[13]and in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate.[14] The region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths, Byzantines, Jews, Romani, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista

Andalusia has been a historically agricultural region, compared  to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the  community especially in the sectors of industry and services was above  average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone.  The region has a rich culture and a strong identity. Many cultural  phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are  largely or entirely Andalusian in origin. These include flamenco and, to a lesser extent, bullfighting and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are also prevalent in some other regions of Spain. 

Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C (97 °F) in summer high temperatures. Late evening  temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C (95 °F) until close to  midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C (104 °F) being common.  Seville also has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe (19.2 °C), closely followed by Almería (19.1 °C).[15] 

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Ancient Africa

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 The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids,  archaic humans and—at least 200,000 years ago—anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens), in East Africa, and continues unbroken into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. The earliest known recorded history arose in the Kingdom of Kush,[1] and later in Ancient Egypt, the Sahel, the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa

Following the desertification of the Sahara, North African history became entwined with the Middle East and Southern Europe while the Bantu expansion swept from modern day Cameroon (Central Africa) across much of the sub-Saharan continent in waves between around 1000 BC and 0 AD, creating a linguistic commonality across much of the central and Southern continent. 

During the Middle Ages, Islam spread west from Arabia to Egypt, crossing the Maghreb and the Sahel.  Some notable pre-colonial states and societies in Africa include the Ajuran Empire, D'mt, Adal Sultanate, Alodia, Warsangali Sultanate, Kingdom of Nri, Nok culture, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, Benin Empire, Oyo Empire, Ashanti Empire, Ghana Empire, Mossi Kingdoms, Mutapa Empire, Kingdom of Mapungubwe, Kingdom of Sine, Kingdom of Sennar, Kingdom of Saloum, Kingdom of Baol, Kingdom of Cayor, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of Kongo, Empire of Kaabu, Kingdom of Ile Ife, Ancient Carthage, Numidia, Mauretania, and the Aksumite Empire. At its peak, prior to European colonialism, it is estimated that Africa had up to 10,000 different states and autonomous groups with distinct languages and customs.[2] 

From the mid-7th century, the Arab slave trade saw Muslim Arabs enslave Africans. Following an armistice between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Kingdom of Makuria after the Second Battle of Dongola in 652 AD, they were transported, along with Asians and Europeans, across the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert

From the late 15th century, Europeans joined the slave trade. One  could say the Portuguese led in partnership with other Europeans. That  includes the triangular trade, with the Portuguese initially acquiring  slaves through trade and later by force as part of the Atlantic slave trade. They transported enslaved West, Central, and Southern Africans overseas.[3] Subsequently, European colonization of Africa developed rapidly from around 10% (1870) to over 90% (1914) in the Scramble for Africa (1881–1914).  However following struggles for independence in many  parts of the continent, as well as a weakened Europe after the Second World War (1939–1945), decolonization took place across the continent, culminating in the 1960 Year of Africa

Disciplines such as recording of oral history, historical linguistics, archaeology and genetics have been vital in rediscovering the great African civilizations of antiquity. 

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