Since the introduction of the Internet, there have been a lot of developments around it. But the most significant of them all is the Internet of Things (IoT).
IoT simply means interlinking various devices (hereby called things) through the internet in a way that the devices can be started and stopped without a human-to-computer interaction. The devices or things, in this case, could be anything electronic or electro-mechanical; it could be a washing machine, cellphone, coffee maker, lamps, streetlights, jet engine, drilling rig engine, etc.
Normally, the connected things/devices are usually part of a very large network. For instance, the devices could be Streetlights which could be connected to other security devices like CCTV cameras and automated gates.
The relation within the IoT network is usually people-to-people, people-to-things, and things-to-things.
Does IoT really depend on the internet?
Definitely yes! The internet acts as the channel through which commands and information are shared between the various interconnected devices. In simple terms, it is the link between the various devices.
When something is connected to the internet, it can send or receive information or even do both. Therefore we can classify the devices into three:
i. Those that gather and send information
ii. Those that receive and act on the information
iii. Those that can gather and send information and also be able to receive and act on information from other sources
Devices that gather and send information
These devices normally have sensors. Example of sensors includes moisture sensors, temperature sensors, air quality sensors, motion sensors, light sensor, etc.
The sensors collect the raw information and transcribe it into signals or commands which are sent to the receivers to encode and act upon them.
Devices that receive and act upon the information
For any mechanism to work, it will have to receive a command from somewhere. It could be a printer receiving a command to print a certain document or an engine receiving a command to start or stop.
To receive the signals or commands, the mechanisms must have transducers or decoders which decode the signal and interpret it for the specific task it is meant for.
Devices that can do both of the above
In most cases, IoT things will be able to collect information and also act on it without the need to relay it to another device to work on it. Nowadays, devices are being made with microchips that come with microchips which makes it easy to house both sensors and receivers at the same place without the need for large housing.
A company could have some motion detectors (sensors) and streetlights installed at their main entrance. The main entrance could be an automated gate interlinked with facial recognition devices.
If a person approaches the gate, the motion detectors will detect the motion and send a signal to the streetlights, which are programmed to light once a signal is sent from the motion detectors. The facial recognition devices would then be actualized to analyze the face of the person. If the person is somebody recognizable, the facial recognition devices would send a signal to the automated gate system to open and let the person in.
Why is IoT important?
IoT enables businesses and people to tap into technology. It gives them the efficiency they require in their operations since it brings on board some degree of automation.
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It is a technique known as cold boot attack , used in computer forensics, in data recovery procedures and inevitably in illegal hacking activities.
It takes advantage of a physical characteristic of RAM banks, in particular of DRAMs, which by their very nature do not immediately lose data in the face of a sudden power failure but follow a sort of discharge that is much slower as the electronic components are colder.
In a nutshell, the RAM loses its content in a time proportional to the temperature.
In normal and steady-state conditions we talk about a few milliseconds, but if it is cooled below -50 ° C (for example through a can like those on the market) the discharge time can even reach a few tens of seconds.
That time is enough to detach it from the motherboard, place it on another PC and read its contents through an appropriate tool that dumps it .
Recalling that except in rare cases (1) the RAM is never encrypted unlike the filesystem, (2) which often contains temporarily the keys used by the security systems and (3) that everything you are doing is momentarily positioned right there ( such as what I am currently writing here on quora before posting the content), it is clear that as a technique, although it requires physical access to the computer, it is particularly intriguing not only for completely legitimate activities.
As a computer student , if we are asked about the opposite term for RAM , the obvious answer is ROM.
So here we are just sharing some thoughts on why your ROM is also a RAM !
RAM or random access memory refers to the method by which the data is accessed from your memory . Random Access means data can be accessed from your memory in a random manner , ie in any order irrespective of the order in which you are storing the data .
The opposite term for RAM is Sequential access memory or SAM . ie data can be accessed from that kind of media in a sequential l manner only . Tape drives are classic examples of SAM.
So back to our point , all the electronic memories you are using in computers can access data randomly so we can call them RAM. primarily There are two types of RAM available , the Read Write -RAM and Read Only -RAM , ie RW-RAM and RO-RAM. According to the normal usable of the term , we prefer to call the RW-RAM as just RAMs and RO-RAMs as ROMs.
So bear in mind the fact that ROM is also a RAM , but for your examinations , do not go for this story if you are expecting an A grade for your computer paper
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