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History

Roots of cybernetic theory

The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Alcibiades to signify the governance of people.[13] The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge. 

James Watt 

The first artificial automatic regulatory system was a water clock, invented by the mechanician Ktesibios;  based on a tank which poured water into a reservoir before using it to  run the mechanism, it used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of  the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water  accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir. This  was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that  required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls  of the mechanism. Although they considered this part of engineering (the  use of the term cybernetics is much posterior), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles. 

The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or télos for end, goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 18th century when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor (1775–1800), a centrifugal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper.[14] In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to  discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle (Funktionskreis) in order to explain animal behaviour and the origins of meaning in general. 

Early 20th century

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s; the ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory. Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. 

Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna during World War II.  The founder of System Dynamics, Jay Forrester, worked with Gordon S. Brown during WWII as a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at  MIT to develop electronic control systems for the U.S. Navy. Forrester  later applied these ideas to social organizations, such as corporations  and cities and became an original organizer of the MIT School of  Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management

W. Edwards Deming, the Total Quality Management guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial prize, was an intern at Bell Telephone Labs in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory; Deming made "Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book The New Economics

Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback ("back  afferentation") was studied. The study and mathematical modelling of  regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key  articles were published in 1943: "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow; and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts

In 1936, Ștefan Odobleja published "Phonoscopy and the clinical semiotics". In 1937, he  participated in the IX International Congress of Military Medicine with  "Demonstration de phonoscopie"; in the paper he disseminated a  prospectus announcing his future work, "Psychologie consonantiste", the  most important of his writings, where he lays the theoretical  foundations of generalized cybernetics. The book, published in Paris by Librairie Maloine (vol. I in 1938 and vol. II in 1939), contains almost 900 pages and  includes 300 figures in the text. The author wrote at the time that  "this book is ... a table of contents, an index or a dictionary of  psychology, [for] a ... great Treatise of Psychology that should contain  20–30 volumes". Due to the beginning of World War II, the publication  went unnoticed (the first Romanian edition of this work did not appear  until 1982). 

Norbert Wiener 

Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Norbert Wiener, McCulloch, Arturo Rosenblueth and others, such as W. Ross Ashby, mathematician Alan Turing, and W. Grey Walter (one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of  animal behaviour).  In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a  congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy (France was an important geographical locus of early cybernetics together with the US and UK); the event was organized by the Bourbaki, a French scientific society, and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899–1983), uncle of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot.  During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a  manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied  mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the  United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics, coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms", into his scientific theory: it was popularized through his book Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (MIT Press/John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1948).[2] In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club

John von Neumann 

In the early 1940s John von Neumann contributed a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: von Neumann cellular automata, and their logical follow up, the von Neumann Universal Constructor.  The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of self replication, which cybernetics adopted as a core concept.  The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study. 

In 1950, Wiener popularized the social implications of  cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a  regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin). 

Cybernetics in the Soviet Union was initially considered a "pseudoscience" and "ideological weapon" of  "imperialist reactionaries" (Soviet Philosophical Dictionary, 1954) and  later criticised as a narrow form of cybernetics.[15] In the mid to late 1950s Viktor Glushkov and others salvaged the reputation of the field. Soviet cybernetics  incorporated much of what became known as computer science in the West.[16] 

While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the Biological Computer Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, under the direction of Heinz von Foerster, was a major center of cybernetic research for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958. 

Split from artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) was founded as a distinct discipline at the Dartmouth workshop. After some uneasy coexistence, AI gained funding and prominence. Consequently, cybernetic sciences such as the study of artificial neural networks were downplayed; the discipline shifted into the world of social sciences and therapy.[17] 

Prominent cyberneticians during this period include Gregory Bateson and Aksel Berg

New cybernetics

In the 1970s, new cyberneticians emerged in multiple fields, but especially in biology. The ideas of Maturana, Varela and Atlan,  according to Jean-Pierre Dupuy (1986) "realized that the cybernetic  metaphors of the program upon which molecular biology had been based  rendered a conception of the autonomy of the living being impossible.  Consequently, these thinkers were led to invent a new cybernetics, one  more suited to the organizations which mankind discovers in nature -  organizations he has not himself invented".[18] However, during the 1980s the question of whether the features of this  new cybernetics could be applied to social forms of organization  remained open to debate.[18] 

In political science, Project Cybersyn attempted to introduce a cybernetically controlled economy during the early 1970s.[19] In the 1980s, according to Harries-Jones (1988) "unlike its  predecessor, the new cybernetics concerns itself with the interaction of  autonomous political actors and subgroups, and the practical and reflexive consciousness of the  subjects who produce and reproduce the structure of a political  community. A dominant consideration is that of recursiveness, or  self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression  of political consciousness and with the ways in which systems build upon  themselves".[20] 

One characteristic of the emerging new cybernetics considered in that time by Felix Geyer and Hans van der Zouwen, according to Bailey (1994),[21] was "that it views information as constructed and reconstructed by an  individual interacting with the environment. This provides an epistemological foundation of science, by viewing it as observer-dependent. Another  characteristic of the new cybernetics is its contribution towards  bridging the micro-macro gap. That is, it links the individual with the society".[21] Another characteristic noted was the "transition from classical  cybernetics to the new cybernetics [that] involves a transition from  classical problems to new problems. These shifts in thinking involve,  among others, (a) a change from emphasis on the system being steered to  the system doing the steering, and the factor which guides the steering  decisions; and (b) new emphasis on communication between several systems  which are trying to steer each other".[21] 

Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as game theory (the analysis of group interaction), systems of feedback in evolution, and metamaterials (the study of materials with properties beyond the Newtonian properties  of their constituent atoms), have led to a revived interest in this  increasingly relevant field.[3]  

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